Genghis Khan was advised by his wife in political matters

The men of the royal family tried to treat their wives equally. Separate accommodation and servants were provided for each woman.

Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes and established a great empire through conquests. In traditional history, all deeds are attributed to one person and he is made great. While those who work with him and their hard work and sacrifice are ignored.



Establishment of the Mongol Empire

While Mongol journals and emperors were involved in the formation of the Mongol Empire, Mongol women played a major role in its formation. Especially in the early role of Genghis Khan, his mother Halloween and his first wife Borta Khatun used to give him advice in political matters.


Before Genghis Khan, Mongol families were scattered and women were insecure. Because they were kidnapped and raped. Despite being insecure, she was free and could live a life of her own free will. When Genghis Khan united the Mongols, the respect of the women of his family increased and they began to participate in political and social affairs.


What was the importance of women in Mongol society?

That is, women from wealthy families also had a higher social status. Genghis Khan also took care of the fact that he had many marriages. But the first wife was more respected. The price of the girl was paid at the time of marriage. The girl used to bring dowry which contained gold, silver, cattle, etc. and there were also employees in the dowry. But the dowry remained the woman’s property.


After that, the cattle were given to the boys while the jewelry and clothes were distributed among the girls as an inheritance. If the boy could not pay the price of the girl, he would employ his father-in-law and pay the money.


Before the time of Genghis Khan, when young men could not pay the price of a woman, the bride, they would kidnap her. As Genghis Khan’s father did. He kidnapped his wife, Halloween. Which later gave birth to Genghis Khan.


The men of the royal family tried to treat their wives equally. Separate accommodation and servants were provided for each woman.


How many wives did the princes have in the Mongol dynasty?

Usually, in the Mongol dynasty, princes had four wives and had separate tents where they lived, but it was important for everyone to obey the orders of the senior lady.


In addition to these four wives, there were other women and maids who served him. Genghis Khan used to visit his wives’ tents and inquire about their well-being. There were royal guards guarding the tents, and some wives had separate bodyguards.


Senior Begum Khan was accompanied by seven to nine children while junior wives had two or three children. The senior lady used to sit with Khan in invitations while the place of junior begums was separate and the senior lady was also present in the hospitality. After the death of the husband, the widow was honored and other women and maids were strangled to death.


When two Christian missionaries came to Mongolia in the thirteenth century, they mentioned the duties of men and women, such as the Mongols changing camps in summer and winter. The women used to load and unload the goods in the car and also drove the car themselves. The women took care of the cattle and the men took care of the horses.


The men made horse milk wine, the women made butter, and the skins made clothes. The men went hunting or expeditions. He was taken away and the rest of the wives stayed in the camp.


Ibn Battuta’s Journey to Mongolia

When Ibn Battuta traveled to Mongolia, he was received by Uzbek Khan’s senior wife and offered the fruit to eat. Begum was accompanied by 19 other female employees who were helping her with her work. In the time of his successors after Genghis Khan, the importance of the royal bodyguards had increased.


They began to take part in many household chores. They also took care of the kitchen and distributed food. There were employees for each lady. Kitchens were paid for separately. Clothing and ornaments were customary and camels or carts were used for riding. Expenditure on each was based on its status.


According to a missionary Christian, there were two hundred vehicles to serve a lady. The maids did the housework and spent their time weaving and embroidering.


A wealth of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan

After Genghis Khan, the wealth of the Mongol Empire increased immensely. Therefore, the number of employees of the royal family had multiplied several hundred times. Which included female and male employees. The number of vehicles used by them had also increased by several hundred. They were married in the royal family. Wealth began to flow from the Byzantine family, and women also received a share of the booty.


After gaining power, the Mongols ended the kidnapping and marriage process. Dowry, however, was customary. Women also invested in the trade, but also through Chinese, Turkish and Muslim merchants.


After the establishment of the Mongol Empire, the conquered rulers used to give gifts to the royal women. They were also given estates. Craftsmen and artisans were his servants who made and sold goods, the profits of which went to the royal women. Therefore, they had abundant financial resources and in addition, cattle, land, gifts, and booty were abundant.


Women were free in religious matters. The old religion of women was Shamanism. She was free to practice Nestorism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Some women carried their shrines with them and were free to perform religious rites.


After the death of Genghis Khan, his widows began to take part in politics, and when Khan was elected, the Krolatai or Assembly was convened, which was attended by all the Mongol nobles except the family. On this occasion, Genghis’s widows sought the support of the members of the Assembly for the post of Khan for their sons. That is why there were frequent quarrels at every election. Eventually, these conflicts led to a civil war that toppled the Mongol Empire.


Throughout this detail, women from the ruling family are mentioned, while ordinary and lower-class women are ignored and are not told what role they played in the formation of the Mongol Empire.


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